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(中英双语对照版)【聚焦生态文明贵阳国际论坛】推进生态文明理论和实践创新!绿色发展市长论坛嘉宾发言摘登(二)
发布时间: 2021-07-15 15:11 | 信息来源: 贵阳外事   |   浏览量:
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【聚焦生态文明贵阳国际论坛】推进生态文明理论和实践创新!绿色发展市长论坛嘉宾发言摘登(二)
[Focus on Eco Forum Global Guiyang 2021] Innovation of Ecological Civilization in Theories and Practice; Excerpts from Speeches at the Mayors' Forum on Green DevelopmentPart 2

7月12日,绿色发展市长论坛在贵阳举行。在论坛第二环节,来自国内外的嘉宾围绕“推进生态文明理论和实践创新”议题,共同探讨如何提高生态环境治理体系和治理能力现代化水平,积极推进低碳发展转型,为贵州贵阳“在生态文明建设上出新绩”出谋划策。同时,探索低碳发展的绿色金融新手段和新路径,推进建立绿色金融体系,以绿色金融推动绿色发展。

On July 12, 2021, the Mayors' Forum on Green Development was held in Guiyang. In the second session of the forum, guests at home and abroad discussed on improving the modernization of the ecological environment governance system and capacity under the theme “Promote the innovation of ecological civilization theory and practice”, in a bid to actively promote the transformation of low-carbon development, and provide suggestions for “scoring new achievements in ecological progress” in Guiyang, Guizhou. Meanwhile, their positive discussions also aimed to explore new means and paths for low-carbon development of green finance, promote the establishment of a green financial system, and enhance green development with green finance.

绿色发展市长论坛第二环节会议现场。

Session Two at the Mayors' Forum on Green Development

中国社会科学院世界经济与政治研究所所长、社科院学部委员张宇燕:

Zhang Yuyan, Director of the World Development Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

“一带一路”建设中生态文明建设不可或缺

“Ecological progress is indispensable for the ‘Belt and Road’ initiative”

张宇燕

Zhang Yuyan

结合我的研究领域,我想谈谈生态环境与经济发展之间的关系。从经验上看,世界各国的经济发展大致经历了四个过程:第一个阶段,是不考虑生态环境,只追求经济高速发展;第二个阶段,是在追求经济高增长的同时,考虑到一定的环境恶化问题,尽量将环境影响最小化;第三个阶段,是在不使环境恶化的基础上,努力实现更高的经济增长速度;第四个阶段,是在我们当下所处生态环境不断改善的前提下,实现经济高速发展、可持续发展。按照以上四个阶段来分类,贵州至少已经进入到了第三个阶段,甚至有些地区已进入第四个阶段。我越来越感受到贵州是我国生态文明建设成就的一个缩影。“一带一路”建设,要实现高质量建设、高质量发展,生态文明建设是不可或缺的重要内容。从生态文明建设的角度来看,我国在和“一带一路”沿线国家、地区进行经济合作和经济发展的过程中,一定要保障现有的环境,且不断得到改善,以此为前提,再寻求经济的高质量发展,真正实现生态文明和人类共生和谐发展。

Based on my research field, I want to talk about the relationship between ecological environment and economic development. Empirically, all the countries have gone through four stages in economic development. In the first stage, they pursued high-speed economic development regardless of the ecological environment. In the second stage, they thought about some environmental problems and attempted to minimize the environmental impact while seeking high economic growth. In the third stage, they strived to achieve a higher economic growth while maintaining sound environment. In the fourth stage, which is now, all efforts are made to achieve rapid and sustainable economic growth amid the continuous improvement of our ecological environment. Of the above four stages, Guizhou has entered at least the third stage, and even some areas in the province started the construction in the fourth stage. I am increasingly aware that Guizhou is a microcosm of the achievements of ecological progress in China. Ecological progress plays an indispensable and important role in achieving high-quality construction and development under the “Belt and Road” Initiative. From the perspective of ecological progress, China must maintain and constantly improve the existing environment amid the economic cooperation with countries and regions along the “Belt and Road” and within the economic development. On this premise, we should seek economic development towards a higher quality and truly achieve the harmonious development of men and nature.

浙江大学副校长黄先海:

Huang Xianhai, Vice President of Zhejiang University

增强中国新型能源在世界上的竞争力

“China should enhance its competitiveness of new energy in the world.”

黄先海

Huang Xianhai

绿色发展是一个重大的产业变革和技术创新,在这样的变革背景下,原来以化石能源为基础的能源支撑体系和产业体系面临着重大的重构。目前,我们在化石能源方面的生产和消费,是全世界第一,以化石能源为主导的发展格局却严重不适合双碳战略。我们现在非常明确要走非化石能源的新路子,在这种非化石能源新型体系中,最典型的就是光和风的新型能源。目前,中国在光伏能源领域已实现了跨越式发展,竞争力居世界第一。将来,要强化风和光新型能源的结构体系,以达到一个革命性的改变。接下来面临的技术难题,是如何有效储备光能,例如浙江大学现在已经研究出光能可以储存7个小时的方式方法,如果以后时间可以延长,这种光能源对化石能源的替代性会更加明显。对于新型能源的发展,中国有自身的道路和发展的路径,中国的产业政策起了非常大的作用。例如对光能源优质产业的补贴政策,对壮大产业经济很有帮助,有助于市场的进入。这是一个非常典型的例子,我们可以参考这个经验,增强中国新型能源在世界上的竞争力。

Green development is a major industrial change and technological innovation. Against this backdrop, the original energy support system and industrial system based on fossil energy may face a significant restructuring. China ranks the top in production and consumption of fossil energy, but the development pattern dominated by fossil energy is far inconsistent with the goals for peak CO2 emissions and carbon neutrality. We are now very clear that China should take a new path of non-fossil energy. In this new system of non-fossil energy, the most typical energies are the light and wind energies. China has achieved leap-forward development in photovoltaic energy, with the competitiveness topping the world. In the future, China should strengthen the structural system of new energies represented by wind and light in order to achieve a revolutionary change. The technical problem facing us is how to effectively store light energy. For example, Zhejiang University has developed the methods to store light energy for 7 hours. If the storage time can be extended in the future, the substitution of this light energy for fossil energy will be more significant. For the development of new energy, China has its own development pattern, in which China's industrial policies played a very important role. For instance, the subsidy policies for the high-quality industries using light energy are beneficial for the development of industrial economy and market access. This is a very typical case. We can learn from it to further enhance China’s competitiveness of new energy in the world.

国务院发展研究中心国际合作局原局长,中国人民大学杰出学者、特聘教授程国强:

Cheng Guoqiang, Former Director of the International Cooperation Bureau of the Development Research Center of the State Council, Distinguished Academics and Special-term Professor of Renmin University of China

加快构建绿色发展经济体系

“We should step up the construction of an economic system for green development.”

程国强

Cheng Guoqiang

绿色化贯穿中国现代化的全过程,中国已经把生态文明的理念贯穿到政治、经济、文化、社会建设的各个方面。在新型工业化、新型城镇化、信息化、农业现代化中,也在协同推进绿色化。因此,不管是国家层面,还是省市层面,都应该构建完善的绿色化发展机制和治理体系,建成人民至上、和谐共生的现代化。要实现以上目标,就要加快构建绿色发展经济体系。要加快发展方式的绿色化转型,全方位推进规划、设计、投资、建设、生产、流通、生活、消费等方面的绿色化,形成资源高效利用、环境严格保护、生态优先、低碳循环的现代经济体系。同时,配套建设相应的绿色项目信息服务平台、绿色科技创新体系等。我们还必须强化绿色发展的国际合作。当前,全球面临着新冠肺炎疫情、经济复苏、消除贫困、气候变化等共同挑战,世界比任何时候都需要团结合作、齐心协力,在合作中我们应该避免搞绿色低碳方面的技术或产品壁垒,减小全球发展的不平衡和不充分。从学者的角度,我建议必须按照高标准、为民生、可持续的目标,加强全球绿色发展的国际合作,加快推进高质量绿色“一带一路”建设,打造好绿色基建、绿色能源、绿色交通、绿色金融的基础,主动提升发展中国家应对气候变化和绿色低碳转型的能力,为全球的可持续发展做贡献。

Green development is of great importance in the whole process of China's modernization. China has applied the concept of ecological civilization into politics, economy, culture and social construction, and constantly promoted green development amid the new industrialization, new urbanization, informationization and agricultural modernization. Therefore, the central and local governments should build a green development mechanism and governance system, building a modern society that puts people first and features harmonious coexistence. To achieve these goals, we should step up an economic system for green development. It is necessary to speed up the transformation towards a green development mode, promote the green development of planning, design, investment, construction, production, circulation, life and consumption in an all-round way, and form a modern economic system featuring efficient utilization of resources, strict environmental protection, ecological priority and low-carbon cycle. Meanwhile, we should also build a green project information service platform and green science and technology innovation system, and strengthen international cooperation on green development. The world is now facing common challenges such as COVID-19, economic recovery, poverty eradication and climate change, and needs unity, cooperation and concerted efforts more than ever. In cooperation, we should avoid technical or product barriers in green and low-carbon development and reduce the imbalance and insufficiency in global development. As a scholar, I suggest that we should strengthen international cooperation in green development with high standards for people's livelihood and sustainable development, accelerate the promotion of the “Belt and Road” Initiative, build a solid foundation for green infrastructure, green energy, green transportation and green finance, and actively enhance the ability of developing countries to cope with climate change and green and low-carbon transformation, thereby contributing to global sustainable development.

中国海油集团能源经济研究院院长王震:

Wang Zhen, President of CNOOC Energy Economy Research Institute

能源效率提升空间非常大

“There is a huge room for improving energy efficiency.”

王震

Wang Zhen

我认为对中国来讲,目前面临最大的挑战是碳达峰的问题。到2030年,中国单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放将比2005年下降65%以上。这对于各级政府来说,压力非常大。从经济学的视角来看,既要能够使得排放的峰值不要过高,同时实现碳排放强度,又能实现经济增长,这就需要统筹减排和发展的关系问题。完成碳达峰前,需要提升能源效率,现在能源效率提升的空间非常大。从生产端来讲,能源结构的改善非常重要,特别是生产企业,需要探索如何使得间接排放能够有效地传递,使得绿色的电能够更多地传递到终端。从优化产业结构的角度来讲,可从投资角度思考如何控制二氧化碳排放的成本。从绿色金融的视角来看,可通过经济手段,或者金融手段进行约束解决问题,通过投资端、生产端、融资端多重发力,才能有效解决减排问题,达到目标。

In my opinion, the biggest challenge facing China now is the peak in CO2 emissions. By 2030, China will lower its carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by over 65 percent from the 2005 level. This is highly stressful for governments at all levels. In economics, we need properly handle the relation between emission reduction and development to make CO2 emissions not so high while still under certain intensity, and economy grow. Before the goal of peaking CO2 emissions is achieved, it is necessary to improve energy efficiency since there is a huge room for improving energy efficiency. In terms of production, it is important to improve energy structure, especially for manufacturers, which need to tap into the approaches to effectively transmit indirect emissions and drive green electricity transmitted to the terminals. To optimize industrial structure, we can think about how to control the cost of CO2 emissions from the perspective of investment. In green finance, the problem can be solved by economic or financial means. The goal of emission reduction can be achieved through investment, production and financing.

世界银行中国、韩国和蒙古局局长马丁·芮泽:

Martin Raiser, Work Bank's Country Director for China and Mongolia, and Director for Korea

加强合作 促进实现减排目标

“We should enhance cooperation to achieve the goal of emission reduction.”

马丁·芮泽

Martin Raiser

城市是非常重要的,城市也面临非常多的挑战。一个城市需要用科学的方式去实现一个重点分明的减排计划,这样才能实现减排方面的目标。这其中最重要的,就是一个合适的规划,才能使减排更加地具有成本效益。第二点,中国要实现在环保方面的目标,合作是非常重要的。合作就需要银行,还有资本市场,同时还有一个监测和验证的系统,银行和资本可以帮助做好重点规划,看好城市应该优先采取哪些行动,同时得到这些金融机构更好地支持创新,这些创新可以帮助我们实现零碳目标。最后我想说的是所有的这些行动都是需要我们能够了解环境恶化所带来的后果。同时,如果我们说到气候变化的话,我们就需要引进碳税,这个收入可以帮助市政府去投资更好的绿色基础设施,同时也可以刺激这个绿色的政策。

Cities are very important, and also face many challenges. A city needs to take scientific measures to complete a priority-oriented plan to achieve the goal of emission reduction. The most important is a proper plan to make emission reduction more cost-effective. Second, cooperation is very important for China to achieve its environmental protection goals. Cooperation needs banks, capital market, and also a monitoring and verification system. Banks and capital can help make key plans, tell cities to take actions and get better support from these financial institutions for innovation. This can help us achieve the goal of zero carbon. Finally, I want to say that all these actions require us to understand the consequences of environmental degradation. Speaking of climate change, we need to introduce the carbon tax, which can help municipal governments invest in better green infrastructures and stimulate the green policy.

经济合作与发展组织驻华高级顾问及北京办公室主任海博:

Tamas Hajba, Senior Advisor, Beijing Liaison Office of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

建立多国协同平台应对气候变化

“It is necessary to establish a multinational collaborative platform to deal with climate change.”

海博

Tamas Hajba

气候的改变会影响人们的生活,我们也基于此会有一些机遇,比如一些项目和投资,但这仅仅是一些短期的机遇。目前,中国应对气候变化已经自上而下有了系列政策,从国际上来说,我们需要合作,需要协同发展。更重要的是,我们必须认识到必要的政策、措施、目标对于应对气候变化有很大的帮助,通过建立一个多国协同的平台来推动目标的实现。具体而言,我们的财政收入如何使用也是一个很重要的问题,要使用多少比例到生态发展和污染防治上,二氧化碳主要来自于城市,其中80%的碳排都是来自城市的人口,要实现零碳目标,必须要有一些实实在在的措施和政策,并且引导民众参与到相关的创新活动中来。根据相关研究显示,城市地区要实现应对气候变化的目标,需要有一系列考量的标准,基于这样的原因,必须有一个行之有效的策略,通过这些促进碳中和的良好举措,助力实现碳达峰、碳中和。作为经合组织成员,此项工作的代价约是GDP的1%至2%,这意味着为了实现碳中和的目标,我们必须要不断落实措施,不断付诸努力。

Climate change may affect our living, and we will have some opportunities based on it, such as some projects and investments, but these are only short-term opportunities. China has developed a series of top-down policies to deal with climate change. Internationally, we need cooperation and coordinated development. More importantly, we must realize that the necessary policies, measures and goals are greatly helpful in dealing with climate change, which can be achieved by establishing a collaborative platform of multiple countries. Specifically, how to use our fiscal revenue is also very important. What proportion should be applied for ecological development and pollution prevention? Carbon dioxide mainly comes from cities, and 80% of the carbon emitted comes from the people in urban areas. To achieve the goal of zero carbon, some practical measures and policies must be taken, and the people must be guided to participate in relevant innovative activities. According to relevant studies, cities need a series of assessment standards to deal with the climate change. For this reason, there must be an effective strategy and favorable measures to help achieve the goals of peak CO2 emissions and carbon neutrality. China is a member of OECD. The cost of this task is about 1% to 2% of GDP, which means that, in order to achieve the goal of carbon neutrality, we must constantly implement measures and make efforts.

联合国教科文组织驻华代表处代表夏泽翰:

Shahbaz Khan, Representative of UNESCO Office Beijing

贵阳是一座希望之城

"Guiyang is a city of hope.”

夏泽翰

Shahbaz Khan

我是第二次访问贵阳,贵阳是一座希望之城,我们可以打造一个范例,通过这个范例我们可以看到如何实现更好的生态文明建设,以及生态体系的平衡发展。中国是一个伟大的国家,有55个世界遗产资源地,其中在贵州有4个世界遗产资源地,我们在非遗方面做了很多工作,因为非遗跟文化和环境也是息息相关的,像北京、上海、南京、贵阳等城市,都有艺术、文化、美食等非遗方面的一个优势,我们可以和贵州、贵阳一起合作,一起寻找解决方案,实现可持续发展目标。我们有一个全球的示范项目,因为贵阳有很多职业院校,我们会在贵阳设立一个网校,涉及到非遗和更多。另外,我们还会去促进生态旅游,实现一个绿色的生活方式,贵阳有很多旅游资源,在生态旅游方面做出了很多的成绩,值得我们学习,期待以后能和贵阳在这方面有更多的合作。文化、教育、科学、技术等会影响我们未来生活,我们也希望和贵阳在这些方面更好合作,去实现可持续发展目标。

This is my second visit to Guiyang. Guiyang is a city of hope. We can create an example through which we can see how to better achieve ecological civilization and balanced development of ecological system. China is a great country. There are 55 World Heritage sites in China, including four in Guizhou. We have made great efforts in intangible cultural heritage, because intangible cultural heritage is closely related to culture and environment. Cities like Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Guiyang are advantageous in art, culture and food. We can work with Guiyang, Guizhou to find solutions for achieving sustainable development goals. We have a global demonstration project. Since Guiyang has many vocational colleges, we will set up an online school here, which will involve intangible cultural heritage and others. In addition, we will promote eco-tourism development and realize a green lifestyle. Guiyang has many tourism resources and has made abundant achievements in eco-tourism, which is worth learning. We look forward to more cooperation opportunities with Guiyang in this regard in the future. Culture, education, science and technology may affect our future life. We also hope to have a better cooperation with Guiyang in these areas for the purpose of sustainable development.

南开大学教授唐景春:

Tang Jingchun, Professor at Nankai University

以更高标准推动城市绿色发展

“We should promote the green development of cities with higher standards.”

唐景春

Tang Jingchun

“绿水青山就是金山银山”,为我们在新时代营造绿水青山、建设美丽中国,转变经济发展方式、建设社会主义现代化强国提供了有力思想指引,因此建设生态文明是我们共同责任。而生态文明建设不仅是一种实践,更是一项从思想到文化再到传承的系统工作,贵阳市作为全国生态文明城市,其生态文明建设政策具有前瞻性,是贵阳市深入践行习近平生态文明思想的体现。希望未来贵阳能把碳达峰、碳中和纳入生态文明建设整体布局,在现有基础上扬长避短,坚决节能减排,做好碳排放的“减法”,更要利用森林这个最大的生态碳汇做好“加法”,以更高标准推动城市绿色发展。同时,优良生态环境是贵阳最大的发展优势和竞争优势,希望贵阳在生态文明建设方面要进一步结合自身区域和资源优势,例如森林、生物、喀斯特地貌等资源,深入持久地推进生态文明建设,让其发挥更大作用。

The philosophy that “lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets” provides us with powerful ideological guidance for creating gorgeous environment, building beautiful China, transforming the mode of economic development and developing China into a great modern socialist country for the new era. Therefore, it is our common responsibility to achieve ecological civilization. Ecological progress is not only a practice, but also a systematic task from thought to culture and inheritance. Guiyang, as a national ecological civilization city, has developed forward-looking policies on ecological progress, which embodies Guiyang's in-depth practice of Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization. It is hoped that Guiyang will bring peal CO2 emissions and carbon neutrality into the overall outline of ecological progress in the future, foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses, resolutely conserve energy and reduce emissions, effectively reduce CO2 emissions, and make use of forests, the largest ecological carbon sink, so as to promote green development of cities with higher standards. Excellent ecological environment is the greatest advantage of development and competiveness for Guiyang. I hope that Guiyang would further exert its regional and resource advantages, such as forest, biology and karst landform, to constantly promote ecological progress in depth and for the greater good in the future.


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